Celebrity endorsement dissertation
In order to determine the customers perception of a product/brand and how this might be affected by celebrity endorsement, a questionnaire has been developed based on existing ensure the research is conducted correctly, the questionnaire design is constructed according to finks (1995) 'questionnaire development' (cited in cholasuke et al, 2004). Although the number of advertising featuring celebrities has increased and it seems inevitable that it will in the future, there is still a question of whether celebrity endorsement has an impact on consumers' behaviour.
Number of organisations now using celebrities in their advertising has increased, as according to stephens and rice (1998) in the usa, the use of celebrity endorsers have increased from a little over 15 percent to approximately 25 percent of all adverts between 1979 and 1997. The focus group added that 'if people like the celebrity and want to be more like that celebrity they will be more likely to buy products they are advertising.
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Having a celebrity attached to your brand will increase the likelihood of product recall as well as infuse your product with the charisma and success associated with the celebrity (wilson, 1997 cited in swerdlow and swerdlow, 2003). The use of celebrity endorsements are a means of creating awareness of the brand advertised.
It can be assumed that a communicator (celebrity) can be perceived as knowledgeable and a person with expertise. From the study illustrates the level of agreement of each attribute attached to the specified celebrity according to the participants of the survey.
Additionally, belch and belch (2009) argues that while expertise is important, the target audience must also find the source (celebrity) believable. Graph showing each celebrity's perceived the results indicate david beckham is perceived as the most 'handsome' of the three celebrities with 66.
Participants think that it is children who want to be like their idols, and one respondent could only give examples of products they had bought because of a sport celebrity endorsement when they were a child. Empirical studies on the congruency theory frequently focus on the physical attractiveness of the celebrity endorser (till and busler, 1998).
Relating negative information to the balance theory (heider, 1958) 'the evaluation of an object is affected by how the evaluation will fit with other related attitudes held by the consumer' therefore if the consumer has negative attitudes towards the celebrity according to this theory and to 'balance' their thoughts they would have negative attitudes towards the y results from figure 4. Use of a celebrity endorser can be seen as the source of a message the company wishes to expose to their target audience.
Terms of using sports celebrity endorsements in advertising, it is often used in advertising that strongly depends on a strong brand image from a social perception. Also as the primary research was all researcher administered, it must be taken into consideration that there is a chance of 'response bias' where the respondent answers the question in a way they think the researcher wants them to answers rather than their true beliefs, this could have affected the reliability of the research recommendations is apparent that age has an important role when examining consumers' motivation to purchase, so future research into the area of celebrity endorsement should explore in greater detail the effects age has on motivation to purchase.
The central point of this investigation will focus on whether celebrity endorsement has an impact on consumer's motivation to purchase, and will be primarily looking at sports investigation will emphasis on the use of sporting celebrities in advertisements as they have achieved their celebrity status through sporting success as opposed to it being either ascribed or attributed 'achieved celebrity derives from the perceived accomplishments of the individual in open competition... However the company must consider a number of factors when deciding to use a celebrity spokesperson such as over-shadowing the product/brand, being overexposed and the target audiences receptivity and risks to the advertiser (belch and belch, 2009).
Erdogan et al (2001) highlights the rise of celebrity endorsement in the united kingdom with approximately one in five marketing programs featuring some type of celebrity endorsement. Some of the advantages of celebrity endorsement are discussed below:To influence purchasing decision of the target audience (ohanain, 1991).
However foxall and goldsmith (1998) believe that a celebrity endorsement does not create a strong pre-purchase attitude but can impact and cause change in the consumer's perception process. These aims include:To discover consumers opinions on what they understand by celebrity endorsement and whether it is an effective as a form of explore whether celebrities appearing in advertising has influenced the consumer previously and find out if endorser attributes have an effect on consumers' beliefs on a brands highlight how bad publicity can affect consumers towards the brand ering various primary research methods, the researcher has decided that the most appropriate methods for this study was to apply both quantitative and qualitative approaches.
The conclusion will draw deductions on whether celebrity endorsements do influence consumer's motivation to chapter seeks to explore the most crucial attributes that is mostly associated with celebrity endorsement strategy. Endorsements have been an integral element of organisations' marketing strategy, and although they possess many benefits, there are some limitations of using celebrities in advertising.
Ohanian (1991) states that consumers are more likely to purchase a product or brand if it is endorsed by a credible of the major reasons celebrity endorsements are being favoured by organisations when advertising their brand, it the attempt to gain consumers attention. The results show that 50% of participants agreed that negative information about the celebrity would have an affect on their opinion of the brand.
The 'fit' factor examined in previous sections of this investigation is a key aspect here, as consumers' motivation to purchase will increase if the advertisement involves a celebrity that is perceived to be an expert in that field e. Graph showing each celebrity's perceived similarity with findings suggest that the celebrities used to endorse the brands are not comparable with the consumer; with 46.