Literature review on cervical cancer
These findings emphasize the need to improve understanding of the link between hpv and cervical cancer in gabonese limitations of the present study should be mentioned. Review of cervical cancer research in : zaridah s, mog ukmthematic stream: vaccines download here the ct: despite cervical cancer being potentially preventable, it is the second most common cancer among women in malaysia.
World health organization (who) recommended that routine hpv vaccination be included in national immunisation ah ezat compare and look at cost effectiveness of hpv vaccination in prevention of cervical cancer in cross sectional economic burden study with 502 respondents were interviewed from six public gynecology-oncology hospitals in 2006-2009. Epidemiology and prevention of human papillomavirus and cervical cancer in sub-saharan africa: a comprehensive review.
Even with the introduction of screening programmes and immunisation against cervical cancer, the mortality rate has not decreased to a desirable level. Rm32 million) of the annual expenditure was allocated for pap smear screening while 68% (rm167 million) were used for managing invasive cervical cancer.
Articles were screened independently by two reviewers for inclusion and data were extracted and assessed for risk of bias. Key words (mesh terms) and free text terms were developed for 3 themes: hiv, integration and chronic diseases and then combined in the search strategy, after which the papers on integration of hiv and cervical cancer were identified.
Are large inequities in access to effective cervical cancer screening and treatment, with corresponding differences in the risk of invasive disease , with screening coverage in low- and middle-income countries only 19% overall, but much lower in some (e. A study of women’s knowledge regarding human papillomavirus infection, cervical cancer and human papillomavirus vaccines.
The mortality rate due to cervical cancer in malaysia is more than two times higher than the netherlands, united kingdom and finland. Cervical cancer screening had shown to be a cost-effective mean of controlling the cancer and pap smear screening is recognised for secondary prevention.
Disagreements were resolved in discussion with a third reviewers independently extracted data from included studies using standardized forms. Malay muslim physicians considered cultural sensitivity an issue when recommending hpv vaccines more than paediatricians and family physicians who were more likely to agree that acceptance is better if vaccines were recommended as prevention against cervical cancer rather than a sexually transmitted disease.
Fgh supported the introduction of cervical cancer screening by providing logistical and training support for screening, including equipment purchase and distribution, minor facility renovations, in-service training of national health system nurses and doctors, weekly clinical mentoring and on-the-job training of nurses tasked to perform via and cryotherapy, and assistance with data collection and sionin a systematic review of the literature to evaluate attempts to integrate hiv and cervical cancer services, we identified three models of integration: within clinic integration using existing staff; coordination between co-located clinics/specialist; and complex programs of integration involving coordination of many specialists/clinics. They also have higher prevalence of persistent hpv infection, the primary cause of cervical cancer  compared with those hiv negative .
Plos one12(7):Introductioncervical cancer is a public health priority in many parts of the world and remains among the leading causes of cancer in women. The roles of genetic and environmental factors on risk of cervical cancer: a review of classical twin studies.
Related to level of knowledgeknowledge of cervical cancer, pap smear testing and hpv was related to the socio-demographic characteristics of the participants. The natural history of hpv infection has a slow, 10–20 year progression to pre-cancer in immunocompetent women; however, women living with hiv progress more frequently and quickly to pre-cancer and cancer .
The ultimate success of hpv vaccines in reducing the incidence of cervical cancer will be dictated by its uptake and affordability since there are no health insurance coverage for hpv vaccines. Cancer screening requires a reliable health infrastructure for implementation, sustainability and achievement of coverage of more than 70–80% to be effective .
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Integration of services has been proposed as an effective way of improving access to cervical cancer screening especially in areas of high hiv prevalence as well as lower resourced settings. The survey concluded, a large number of cervical cancer patients had inadequate knowledge and had not had a pap smear within three years preceding cancer development.
This mean that screening will still remain an important strategy to combat cervical cancer and every effort is needed to ensure that the investments made in screening are effective and efficient. This retrospective study to estimate the burden associated with cervical cancer was conducted at four hospitals4.
A descriptive study of the decline in cervical screening coverage rates in the north east and yorkshire and the humber regions of the uk from 1995 to 2005. Facilitators and barriers to integrated cervical cancer and hiv tables shows barriers and facilitators mentioned in the results or screened all studies and found only five eligible for risk of bias assessment as they presented evaluative data [29, 30, 34, 38, 42].
These findings highlight the need to inform students about cervical cancer by introducing informative programs into the education this study, 91. 2] however, coverage of cervical screening over the last ten years and in 2007–2008 80% for the first time since the early 1990s.