Literature review on schizophrenia

However, a variety of intriguing questions remain open to scientific nt research has shown that patients with schizophrenia have specific difficulties in inferring what others intend, think, or pretend, and this tom impairment probably influences the way schizophrenia patients use language and interpret speech. Sex differences in olfactory identification and wisconsin card sorting performance in schizophrenia: relationship to attention and verbal ability,” biological psychiatry, vol.

2007 jun 15;75(12):t information: see related handout on helping a family member with schizophrenia, written by the authors of this article exemplifies the aafp 2007 annual clinical focus on management of chronic factors, etiology, and pathophysiologydiagnosisdrug treatmentpsychosocial treatmentsprognosisreferencesarticle factors, etiology, and pathophysiologydiagnosisdrug treatmentpsychosocial treatmentsprognosisreferencesschizophrenia is a debilitating mental illness that affects 1 percent of the population in all cultures. Lieberman ja,For the clinical antipsychotic trials of intervention effectiveness (catie) iveness of antipsychotic drugs in patients with chronic schizophrenia.

Crucial question of tom research in schizophrenia concerns whether deficits in this domain are specific, similar to the deficits found in autistic spectrum disorders, or are the consequence of more general cognitive impairments of attention, executive functioning, memory, general intelligence, and so on (e. Faizi, “gender differences in age at onset of schizophrenia,” journal of the college of physicians and surgeons pakistan, vol.

View at publisher · view at google scholar · view at t us | terms of service | privacy and adolescent social work journalfebruary 2000, volume 17, issue 1,Pp 55–69 | cite asearly-onset schizophrenia: a literature review of empirically based interventionsauthorsauthors and affiliationscatherine n. 24:19 + 2 short stories involving a social interaction between 2 characters, read aloud to subjects, and 4 “hinting” tasks adopted from frith and corcoran 1996 digit span patients with schizophrenia performed more poorly on tom tasks compared to controls, with first degree relatives performing in between.

S concept of a tom deficit in frith (1992) has raised the intriguing question of whether psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia might be explained in terms of an underlying cognitive misrepresentation of one's own and others' intentions—that is, impaired tom. Corcoran and frith (1996), for instance, have shown that patients with schizophrenia violate universal conversational rules such as quantity, quality, relevance, politeness, and tact.

In addition to these potential research areas, future studies may also address whether patients could benefit from cognitive training in this of mind, brain evolution, schizophrenia, linguistics, behavior, social competencethe term theory of mind (tom) refers to the cognitive capacity to represent one's own and other persons' mental states, for instance, in terms of thinking, believing, or pretending. Hallucinogens, narcotics, alcohol) and withdrawal from these substances can cause delusions and hallucinationsnos = not otherwise e the stability of the diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia, diagnosis often changes over time.

They found that in particular paranoid patients were unable to be polite and tactful, suggesting that patients with paranoid schizophrenia were impaired in “mentalizing on the spot” (corcoran and frith 1996). Commentshow to join pubmed commonshow to cite this comment:Ncbi > literature > phrenia research and d in web of l menu about this journal ·.

For example, drugs that cause psychoses similar to the positive symptoms of schizophrenia increase dopaminergic neurotransmission, and almost all antipsychotics decrease dopaminergic neurotransmission. Novel sex-specific treatments could be developed to better meet the needs of people with schizophrenia and first-episode nces.

The difference between the schizophrenia subjects and controls remained significant when iq was covaried out. In fact, schizophrenia patients seem at the least to be compromised in appreciating machiavellian attitudes (christie and geis 1970; sullivan and allen 1999; mazza et al.

Over the years, tom tasks used in schizophrenia research have been modified to better control for interference with attention, memory, “general” intelligence, and verbalization. Individuals who later develop schizophrenia may therefore have a (genetic) predisposition to impaired tom, and this may influence their early interactions with parents and peers.

Sahin, “prevalence of metabolic syndrome among inpatients with schizophrenia,” international journal of psychiatry in medicine, vol. Leucht s,Relapse prevention in schizophrenia with new-generation antipsychotics: a systematic review and exploratory meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials.

However, many studies have now demonstrated that the difficulties schizophrenia patients have in correctly sequencing tom stories is not due to a general sequencing deficit, because patients' sequencing abilities of “physical” stories may well be preserved. This finding indicates that schizophrenia patients' poor recall of information from past social interactions could compromise their ability to infer other people's mental states (corcoran and frith 2003).

A substantial body of research has highlighted the evolution of tom in nonhuman primates, its emergence during human ontogeny, and impaired tom in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. 15:3 + 9 brief written scenarios involving irony 9 brief written scenarios to be literally interpreted schizophrenia subjects were impaired in understanding irony relative to psychiatric controls.

Parent, child, sibling)6 to 17dizygotic twin17monozygotic twin50information from reference 1family history and schizophreniafamily historyapproximate lifetime incidence (%)none (e. However, it is still under debate how an impaired tom in schizophrenia is associated with other aspects of cognition, how the impairment fluctuates with acuity or chronicity of the schizophrenic disorder, and how this affects the patients' use of language and social behavior.

Folnegovic-smalc, “schizophrenia in croatia: age of onset differences between males and females,” schizophrenia research, vol. Hallucinogens, narcotics, alcohol) and withdrawal from these substances can cause delusions and hallucinationsnos = not otherwise 3differential diagnosis of schizophreniaalternative diagnosisdistinguishing featuresbrief psychotic disorderpresence of delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, or grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior lasting at least one day but less than one monthdeliriummultiple underlying etiologies; symptoms often similar to positive symptoms of schizophrenia but with a much shorter coursedelusional disorderdelusions are not bizarre, and there are no other characteristics of schizophreniamedical illnessesillnesses that may cause schizophrenia-like symptoms include hepatic encephalopathy, hypoglycemia, electrolyte abnormalities (e.