Polar bear research paper

This is an example of parasatism where one species, the polar bear, is harmed while the other, the trinchinella, is will global warming affect polar bears? Bear-sea ice bears are tied to the sea ice for nearly all of their life cycle functions.

If the ice begins to move more quickly, polar bears may have to use more energy to maintain contact with preferred habitats. The present trophic pathways in arctic marine ecosystems are reasonably well understood (hobson and welch, 1992) but the effects of a change in the productivity of lower trophic levels have not been directly linked to higher trophic levels such as ringed and bearded seals.

Apparently, polar bears left most diseases and parasites behind when they moved to a marine system and shifted to a diet made up predominantly of fat in which few parasites have intermediate hosts. Assessing and predicting the impacts of climate y how and when polar bears will respond to climate change in different areas is uncertain but based on life history characteristics we suggest that the species is vulnerable in several areas, at least over the longer term.

Model for autumn pelagic distribution of adult female polar bears in the chukchi seas, 1987-1994. The goal of our current research efforts is to refine and enhance models to project the future status of polar bears in the rapidly changing arctic ng polar bears by usgs alaska science center uses the latest technology in satellite radio-tracking to fill key information gaps on how polar bears use both the sea ice and land.

Global warming has caused the polar bear population to decrease due to the results of having to swim longer distances, loss of habitat, and lack of mates to reproduce offspring. The timing of mortality in polar bears is poorly documented but we predict it would be most severe in winter when fat stores are low and the availability of prey is limited.

The majority of our research is conducted on the southern beaufort sea population of alaska and neighboring canada. If such events became more frequent and widespread, they could negatively affect survival rates and contribute to population polar bears demonstrate a wide range of space-use patterns, both within and between populations, with annual home ranges as small as 500 km2 to over 300,000 km2 (garner et al.

Given the complexity of ecosystem dynamics, predictions are uncertain but we conclude that the future persistence of polar bears is tenuous. In alaska, there is evidence of increased cub mortality caused by a decline in sea bears: proceedings of the 14th working meeting of the iucn/ssc polar ...

These adaptations help the polar bear keep them from slipping on polar bear rarely eats plants. Long hair between the pads protects the bear's feet from the cold and provides traction on the ice so he doesn’t slip....

Proceedings of the 13th working meeting of the iucn/ssc polar bear specialist group, 23-28 june 2001, nuuk, greenland. Management adaptations and bears in parts of russia, alaska, canada, and greenland are harvested on a sustainable basis; some at maximal levels (lee and taylor, 1994; iucn/ssc polar bear specialist group, 2002).

A polar bear hunts a seal by waiting quietly for it to emerge from an opening a seal makes in the ice allowing them to breathe or climb out of the water to rest. Validation of mercury tip-switch and accelerometer activity sensors for identifying resting and active behavior in bears.

Bears have a normal life span of about 25 years for males and 30 years for females, although a small number of individuals may live longer (32 year old females have been aged in the wild). Morbillivirus and toxoplasma exposure and association with hematological parameters rn beaufort sea polar bears: potential response to infectious agents in el species.

Because of their dependence upon the sea ice for food, these changes can directly affect the carrying capacity of the arctic for polar bears. Population and genetic studies of polar bear (ursus maritimus): a summary of available data and interpretation of results.

Polar bear population dynamics in the southern beaufort sea during a period of sea ice decline. On sunny days, it traps the sun'ed heat and keeps the bear warm at 98 degrees f (when they' bear fur is oily and water repellent.

While studies vary in terms of the relative importance of specific factors associated with high extinction risk, species with small populations, small ranges, and many of the traits of polar bears such as specialized diet, habitat specialisation, large body size, low fecundity, long-lifespan, and low genetic variability are often cited (mckinney, 1997; beissinger, 2000; owens and bennett, 2000). At an average the polar bears have about five million square miles of living space.

The arctic foxes follow behind polar bears and feed on the wastes of their meals (arctic studies center, 2004). In contrast, if sea ice area is diminished, the density of breeding bears may increase and males may find oestrous females easier to locate but also result in greater interference and competition for access to l, many of the predictions we have made in this paper are subject to a high degree of uncertainty but a highly specialised species such as the polar bear is vulnerable to habitat change and such change has occurred and is continuing to occur through climate 1.